Effect of rearing temperature on physiological measures and antioxidant status of broiler chickens fed stevia (Stevia rebaudiana B.) leaf meal and exogenous xylanase

Pirgozliev, V., Whiting, I.M., Mansbridge, S.C., Enchev, S., Rose, S.P., Kljak, K., Johnson, A.E., Drijfhout, F., Orczewska-Dudek, S. and Atanasov, A.G. (2021) Effect of rearing temperature on physiological measures and antioxidant status of broiler chickens fed stevia (Stevia rebaudiana B.) leaf meal and exogenous xylanase. Current Research in Biotechnology, 3. pp. 173-181.

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Abstract

Background The global climate is warming. Heat stress, as a result of high ambient temperatures, may negatively impact physiology and reduce growth performance of poultry. Stevia is a perennial shrub indigenous to South America where its phytochemical extracts have been used as a natural sweetener for hundreds of years. Its physiological effects, including antioxidant properties, on poultry are well known, however, the translation of these to improved growth performance is variable. Combining stevia with a commercial xylanase to enhance feed digestibility could therefore form a feeding strategy to partially mitigate the negative impact of rearing birds under high ambient temperatures. Purpose The study aimed to compare the growth performance, dietary energy and nutrient availability, oxidative status, gastrointestinal tract development, and caecal short chain fatty acid concentration; at two ambient rearing temperatures, when feeding diets containing stevia and exogenous xylanase, alone or in combination, to broiler chickens. Study design/Methods: Day-old chicks (n = 105) were reared in a single floor pen following breeder recommendations for the first 7 days, whereupon birds (n = 96) were randomly allocated to one of four experimental diets (negative control, stevia at 20 g/kg diet, xylanase at 100 FXU/kg diet, stevia at 20 g/kg diet + xylanase at 100 FXU/kg diet), in one of two environmental conditions (high ambient temperature at 32 ± 2 °C or regular rearing at breeder recommendations), in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. Results Rearing birds at high ambient temperature reduced daily feed intake (p = 0.02). Birds fed stevia and reared at regular temperature had similar weight gain to birds reared in high ambient temperatures, although birds on the control diet housed at regular temperatures had the greatest weight gain (P < 0.05). Exogenous xylanase improved overall dietary metabolisable energy and improved nitrogen retention in the high ambient temperature group only (P < 0.05). Dietary stevia reduced caecal digesta butyric acid: acetic acid at regular temperature, but xylanase increased the butyric acid concentration at high ambient temperature (P < 0.05). Dietary stevia increased (P < 0.001) the hepatic carotenoid concentrations and xylanase improved (P < 0.05) hepatic vitamin E concentrations. Conclusions Rearing temperature is an important environmental factor in broiler production. Exogenous xylanase supplementation can increase feed efficiency and dietary metabolisable energy. Feeding xylanase or stevia improves hepatic antioxidant status in broilers by increasing hepatic vitamin E and carotenoids, respectively, suggesting that either may be effective in counteracting oxidative stress.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Stevia, Xylanase, Rearing temperature, Broilers, Antioxidant status
Divisions: Agriculture and Environment (from 1.08.20)
Depositing User: Mrs Rachael Harper
Date Deposited: 30 Jun 2021 08:46
Last Modified: 22 Jul 2021 14:49
URI: https://hau.repository.guildhe.ac.uk/id/eprint/17706

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